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What is the Toolkit for Urban Sanitation Projects?

The Toolkit for Urban Sanitation Projects, like the Toolkit for Urban Water Supply Projects, is part of the Urban Projects Concept (UPC) the Water Services Trust Fund (WSTF) has developed for the urban projects it is funding. The UPC is introduced and explained in File 3 ('The UPC Brochure') of this Introduction folder ('Introduction to the Toolkit and UPC').
The Toolkit for Urban Sanitation Projects offers a complete set of tools enabling Water Service Providers (WSPs), Water Services Boards (WSBs) and the WSTF Field Monitors to plan, design, implement, manage, monitor and evaluate sanitation projects for their low income urban areas.

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Two Toolkits: Water Supply and Sanitation

The main reason for preparing two separate toolkits, one for water supply and one for sanitation, is to facilitate the access to- and use of the tools. Moreover, in most cases WSPs will prepare and implement separate water supply and sanitation projects.

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How to Use the Toolkit for Urban Sanitation Projects

In order to facilitate the search for specific tools, the Toolkit is made up of six (6) Modules. The focus and content of each Module is discussed in the next chapter.
The Toolkit consists of a large number of documents and should not be read like a book (from A to Z). The Toolkit for Urban Sanitation Projects consists, as the word 'toolkit' already suggests, of a collection of tools.
If, for example, you are a WSP staff member responsible for the low income urban areas and if you want to prepare certain activities or programmes in a particular area, or if you have to write a report, you can select the tool or tools that will guide you through the various phases of the activity or process.

A tool can be a publication, a guideline, a checklist, a contract, a drawing, a manual or a programme. Each tool should assist you to identify and follow the necessary steps and to prevent a number of potential problems. The use of the Toolkit will make it less likely that certain aspects of a particular activity, be it the introduction of a public sanitation facility or the implementation of a health education campaign, are overlooked.
The Toolkit may not offer a solution to all the problems you will be faced with during project preparation, implementation, operation or evaluation. Many low income urban areas are very dynamic and social and economic situations and developments are often unpredictable.

The use of the Toolkit, therefore, should not result in rigidity. This Toolkit should be treated as a dynamic instrument.WSP staff members, on the basis of their objectives and views and on the basis of the experiences they have acquired, are invited to adapt the Toolkit, to make additions and to remove elements of tools they consider to be irrelevant.

The Water Services Trust Fund will, every three (3) years, update the Toolkit on the basis of suggestions made and by using the additions to- or adaptations of the Toolkit that were prepared by WSPs, WSBs and other users. In other words, this is only the first version of the Toolkit for Urban Sanitation Projects.

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Who Should Use the Toolkit

This 'Toolkit for Urban Sanitation Projects' has been prepared for licensed Water Service Providers that want to improve sanitation within the low income urban areas.
The tools found in this Toolkit have been written with and for WSP staff responsible for water supply and sanitation in the low income urban areas. It is important to emphasise, however, that the Toolkit also contains important tools for other WSP staff members. For example, a number of tools were specially prepared for technical staff.

The Toolkit is also used by the Field Monitors of the Water Services Trust Fund who will assist the WSP during the various phases of the project. All Field Monitors have received an in-depth training from the WSTF on the Toolkit.

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The History of the Toolkit

To some extent this Toolkit, as well as the Toolkit for Urban Water Supply Projects, are based upon the Toolkit for Peri-Urban Water Supply, which was developed in Zambia. This Toolkit was released in 2006 by the Devolution Trust Fund (DTF).
In Zambia the Toolkit is mainly used by Commercial Utilities (CUs) to prepare proposals for the DTF and to implement and operate projects in the peri-urban areas.

With the establishment of its Urban Window, the WSTF felt there was need to develop a specific Urban Projects Concept (UPC) in addition to the Community Project Cycle which was designed to guide the preparation, implementation and operation of water supply and sanitation projects in the rural areas of Kenya. The toolkits developed by the WSTF are a key element of the UPC.

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Navigating Through the Toolkit

Sanitation Specific Tools

This toolkit only contains sanitation specific tools and documents! Documents which apply to both, water supply and sanitation, are found in the Toolkit for Urban Water Supply Projects. This water supply toolkit, stored on a DVD-ROM, is made available to all WSBs and WSPs.

The Toolkit Consists of 6 Modules

The Tools in each module are grouped in a number of Sections. Tools that are found in the same Section are related. Each Module has its own Table of Contents and its own Introduction.
Together the 6 Modules cover all project phases and activities; from the preparation of the Project Proposal to the evaluation of the project. The user interface of this CD-ROM allows you to quickly find and access the tools you need.

Using the Toolkit

The WSTF only offers an electronic - CD-ROM based - version of the Toolkit. To facilitate your work, most documents on the CD-ROM have been prepared with Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Office 2003). The drawings of kiosks, presented in Module 6, can be opened (and printed) with the AutoCAD computer programme but are also available in the pdf format.

Some tools and files were downloaded from specialised Internet websites. Most of these files have a pdf extension and can be opened (but not changed) with Adobe's Acrobat Reader. If you do not have Acrobat Reader installed on your computer you can find version 8.1 of this programme on your CD-ROM in this Introduction folder ('Introduction to the Toolkit and UPC'). You can install this programme on the hard drive of your computer.

Since most files have been prepared with programmes that have been installed on most computers, it will be easy for you to select the Tools you require and to open them on your screen. Any adaptations and additions can be made before printing.

If you make adaptations you may decide to keep these new files in a special folder on the hard disk of your computer or on an external hard-drive. Please make frequent backups of all your files and keep your computer free of computer viruses!

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Both toolkits contain the contributions of a large number of organisations and individuals.The WSTF would like to express its gratitude for the valuable contribution made to this toolkit by the late Johnson Phiri who passed away in November 2009.

The following organisations have contributed to the establishment of the Toolkit:

  • Ministry of Water and Irrigation
  • Ministry of Health
  • Athi Water Services Board
  • Rift Valley Water Services Board
  • L. Victoria North Water Services Board
  • Water Services Regulatory Board
  • Oloolaiser Water & Sewerage Co
  • Mavoko-EPZA Water & Sewerage Co
  • Naivasha Water, Sewerage & Sanitation Co
  • Nzoia Water & Sewerage Co
  • Eldoret Water & Sewerage Co
  • Amatsi Water & Sewerage Co
  • Kapsabet-Nandi Water & Sewerage Co
  • Western Water and Sewerage Co
  • Kenya National Bureau of Statistics
  • Hakijamii Trust
  • Pamoja Trust
  • Umande Trust
  • Olekajiado County Council
  • GTZ Kenya, Tanzania & Zambia
  • German Development Bank (KFW)
  • RODECO Consulting GMBH
  • Povry Environment (formerly GKW Consult)
  • Gauff Ingenieure (Zambia & Kenya offices)
  • GFA Consulting Group (Hamburg office)
  • Ministere de l'Energie et des Ressources Naturelles (MINERENA, Rwanda)
  • Water Sector Programme (WSP) of the World Bank
  • World Health Organisation (WHO)
  • Unicef
  • DED Kenya and DED Zambia
  • UN-Habitat
  • SNV Kenya
  • Naivasha Municipal Council
  • Bamburi Cement (Special Product Division)
  • Chipata Water & Sewerage Co
  • Southern Water & Sewerage Co
  • North-Western Water Supply & Sewerage Co
  • Nkana Water and Sewerage Company
  • Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company
  • Devolution Trust Fund
  • Mulonga Water and Sewerage Co
  • Lusaka Water and Sewerage Co
  • Ministry of Local Government and Housing
  • CARE International (Zambia bureau)
  • JICA Zambia
  • National Water Supply and Sanitation Council (NWASCO)
  • Central Statistical Office (CSO)
  • Ministry of Health
  • Athi River Municipal Council

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The Water Services Trust Fund would like to thank these organisations for their ideas, suggestions, contributions and support.
The WSTF also would to express its thanks to the residents and representatives of a number of low income urban and rural areas for their important contributions to the Toolkit:

  • Residents of Athi River, Kware (Ngong), Gichagi (Ongata Rongai), CCCR and Kabati (Naivasha).
  • Residents of Muslim (Webuye).
  • Residents of Mathare (Nairobi).
  • Residents of Zambia Compound and Freedom Compound in Monze (Zambia).
  • Residents of Ngwenya and Nakatindi Compounds in Livingstone (Zambia).
  • Residents of Zambia and Kyawama Compounds in Solwezi (Zambia).
  • Residents of Itimpi Compound in Kitwe (Zambia).
  • Residents of Maiteneke Compound in Chingola (Zambia).
  • Residents of the Commune de Ngenda, Bugesera-Sud (Rwanda).

We at the Water Services Trust Fund hope that this Toolkit will enable you to successfully and sustainably extend sanitation services to the low income urban areas and important public areas.

Eng. Jacqueline Musyoki
CEO, Water Services Trust Fund

Nairobi, June 2010

Data Collection

  Assessing Demand for Public Sanitation...
  Relevant Publications & Policy Documents...
  Public Sanitation Surveys...
  Construction of Public Sanitation Facilities...
  Public Sanitation & Gender...

Design, Technical Drawings

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